Sustainably Fried Chicken?
Posted on June 24, 2006 by Kris Nelson
There was a van toddling down the highway that proclaimed it contained ”Sustainably Fried Chicken” which lead my mind to wander as usual. How can you fry sustainably? Is it the method? Do they mean the oil? Is it made from no-antibiotic free-range corn-fed birds crisped up in Certified Organic GMO-free soybean oil (although peanut oil is usually the best for frying large quantities)?
And who can forget the Adjuvant Effects of Various Lipopeptides and Interferon-γ on the Humoral Immune Response of Chickens abstract where the adjuvant effects of various lipopeptides and recombinant chicken interferon γ (IFN-γ) on the humoral immune response of laying hens was investigated in four immunization studies. [Researchers] used the lipopeptide Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 (PCSL), the conjugate P-Th1 consisting of the lipopeptide P3CS and the T-helper epitope Th1 (FISEAIIHVLHSRHPG), and the conjugate P-Th2 of the lipopeptide P3CSS and the T-helper epitope Th2, which corresponds to the peptide EWEFVNTPPLV, as adjuvants. Human serum albumin (HSA),recombinant bovine somatotropin (RBST), and human immunoglobulin G (IgG) served as antigens in the different experiments. All tested adjuvants enhanced the humoral immune response with various intensities. Chickens showed high antibody titers after the immunization with HSA even without adjuvant, but the adjuvant effects of PCSL and the combination of PCSL and recombinant chicken interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were much more pronounced using the antigens RBST and IgG. Especially after the third immunization, higher titers of antibodies were induced by the coadministration of P-Th1 and, to a greater extent, by the combination of PCSL and P-Th1 compared with the use of PCSL. Also, chickens that had received PCSL and P-Th2 showed the highest immune response, even after the second booster. The average concentrations of chicken immunoglobulin Y were significantly higher in 5-mo-old chickens (9.4 mg/mL serum and 10.1 mg/mL egg yolk) compared with 9-mo-old chickens (5.9 mg/mL serum and 5.1 mg/mL egg yolk). The specific serum antibody response was higher in the older chickens than in the younger chickens. Because chicken antibodies are likely to be used increasingly for diagnostic and therapy in the future, lipopeptides and recombinant chicken IFN-γ may find many applications as adjuvants, thus contributing to the welfare of experimental animals.
I glanced up again; I had read it wrong. It was Sustainably Farmed Chicken.
Special thanks to: M. H. Erhard,*,1 P. Schmidt,† P. Zinsmeister,* A. Hofmann,* U. Münster,* B. Kaspers,* K.-H. Wiesmüller,‡ W. G. Bessler,§ and M. Stangassinger* *Institut für Physiologie, Physiologische Chemie und Tierernährung, Tierärztliche Fakultät, Universität München, Veterinärstrae 13, 80539 München, Germany; †Institut für Tierpathologie, Tierärztliche Fakultät, Universität München, Germany; ‡Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany; and §Institut für Immunbiologie, Universität Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany.